Shams al-Din Isfahani (d. 1348), Tasdid al-Qawa’id fi’l-sharh al-Tajrid al-‘Aqa’id (Kuwait: 2012), 772:

Know that knowledge (al- ͑ilm) is [1] sometimes applied and by it is meant the occurrence of the form of a thing in the intellect. It is divided [1.1] into bare conceptualization (taṣawwur muṭlaq) – like our conception ‘the sun’, and ‘the moon, and ‘the intellect’ – and [1.2] into conceptualization with assent (taṣdīq) – like knowing that the world is temporally originated (muḥdath). Assent is a judgment, by negation or affirmation, between two things. And [2] other times [knowledge] is applied and by it is meant certainty (al-yaqīn), and is [as such] a division of assent because it is an assent qualified by jazm, thubāt, and muṭābaqa. [As such] it is not divided into conceptualization and assent that is firmly convinced (jāzim), corresponds (muṭābiq), and justified (thābit); for a thing is not divided into itself and into something different from itself.


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