The famous scholar and man of letters Ibn Qutaybah al-Dinawari (d.885) reports, in his ‘Uyun al-akhbar, the philologist Ahmad al-Farahidi (d.791) to have said,

“There are four kinds of men: men who know and know that they know; ask them. Men who know and do not know that they know, they are forgetful; remind them. Men who do not know and know that they do not know, they search for guidance; teach them. And men who do not know and do not know that they do not know, they are ignorant; shun them.”

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